Moscow accused Washington of intimidation after a US naval destroyer in the Baltic Sea sailed close to its territory.
Russian ambassador to Nato, Alexander Grushko, said his country would not take such actions lightly.
Speaking after a meeting with the US ambassador to Nato, Douglas Lute, and other Nato representatives, Mr Grushko added: “This is about attempts to exercise military pressure on Russia.
“We will take all necessary measures, precautions, to compensate for these attempts to use military force.”
Tensions flared when Russian SU-24 attack planes flew dangerously close to guided-missile destroyer the USS Donald Cook last week.
Mr Lute said the ship was on routine business in international waters near Poland when it was “harassed” by the jets, which made numerous close-range passes.
US Secretary of State John Kerry later said the Navy ship could have opened fire on the military planes under “rules of engagement”.
Speaking after the meeting, Mr Grushko declared that there could be no thaw in relations between the two countries until the US-led alliance withdraws from Russia’s borders.
His comments come after Russia has bolstered its submarine attack fleet and increased its activities.
The US Navy’s top commander in Europe, Admiral Mark Ferguson, said Russian patrols around the coasts of Scandinavia, Scotland, the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic had increased by 50 per cent in the last year.
The Nato meeting with the two envoys also discussed Moscow’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region two years ago and its continued support for separatist rebels in the east of the country.
Nato Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said members rejected Mr Grushko’s account of events that led to the conflict, which has seen around 9,000 people die since 2014.
Mr Stoltenberg said: “In the meeting, it was re-confirmed that we disagree on the facts, on the narrative and the responsibilities in and around Ukraine.
“Many allies disagree when Russia tries to portray this as a civil war.
“This is Russia destabilizing eastern Ukraine, providing support for the separatists, munitions, funding, equipment and also command and control.”
He stressed both sides needed more dialogue over security in Europe.
Russia continues to deny any direct involvement in Ukraine.